Krumhansl proposed that we’ve heard enough songs in major keys to be able to pick up on what songs in major do, and how they should sound. Just like when you watch enough spy movies, you can basically predict what’s supposed to happen in the spy movie you’re about to watch. Cui says, “I’m assuming that most people hearing ‘I Wanna Dance With Somebody’ would know that it’s in major even though they might not know it’s called major.”
As one commenter pointed out, though, “Clair de Lune” is in 9/8, so of course it’s going to sound strange over a 4/4 beat. However, for me, the 4/4 beat actually makes it sound less strange. I find 9/8 totally unnatural; I can count it deliberately but I haven’t internalized it intuitively. On the other hand, groups of triplets over 4/4 is a common sound in the African-descended American music, and I can feel it just fine.
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The same note, one octave up, appears in Fret 11 on the 1st string, but in order to get back to the previous D#/E♭, we have to skip one string and go back three frets this time (follow the top-right green arrow). This happens every time we cross the 2nd string, because of the tuning alteration. Obviously, we could have used another reference point, the note E an octave up, which appears in Fret 12 of the 1st string, but it helps to understand the relationship between the strings that cross the 2nd string.